A cryptocurrency, cryptocurrency or cryptocurrencies, is a set of binary data designed to act as a medium of exchange. A record of the ownership of each individual coin is stored in a computer database called a ledger. The ledger uses strong cryptography to protect transaction records, control the creation of additional coins and verify the transfer of coin ownership.

Cryptocurrencies are generally fiat currencies because they are not backed by and cannot be converted into commodities. Some cryptocurrency schemes use a validator to perform cryptocurrency services. In the proof-of-stake model, the owner pledges his or her token.

In return, they receive power over the token based on the amount pledged. Typically, these custodians gain additional ownership of the tokens over time through network fees, newly mined tokens or other similar reward mechanisms. Cryptocurrencies do not exist in physical form (like paper money) and are not usually issued by a central authority.

Unlike central bank digital currencies (CBDCs), cryptocurrencies are generally managed in a decentralised manner. A cryptocurrency is generally considered centralised if it is mined or created before it is issued, or if it is issued by a single issuer. In decentralised management, each cryptocurrency runs on a distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain, which acts as a public database of financial transactions.

Bitcoin, released as open source software in 2009, was the first decentralised cryptocurrency. Since the launch of Bitcoin, many other cryptocurrencies have been created.


In 1983, US cryptographer David Chom invented an anonymous cryptocurrency called «ecash». Later, in 1995, he turned it into «Digicash». Digicash was one of the first forms of cryptographic electronic payment, in which the user’s software withdrew banknotes from a bank, determined a specific cryptographic key and sent it to the other party. This made the digital currency untraceable by the issuing bank, the government or any other third party.

In 1996, the National Security Agency published a paper describing the cryptocurrency system, «How to Make a Coin: The Cryptography of Anonymous Electronic Cash», first on the MIT mailing list and then, in 1997, in the American Law Review (Vol. 46, No. 4) in 1997.

crypto history

In 1998, Wei Dai published a description of «b-money», decentralised anonymous electronic money. Shortly afterwards, Nick Szabo described the Bitcoin. Like Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies that followed, BitGold (not to be confused with the later BitGold gold exchange). It was described as an electronic money system that required users to perform proof-of-work functions and where decisions were prepared and published in encrypted form. The system was described as an e-money system where users were required to perform proof-of-work functions and decisions were prepared and published in encrypted form.

In 2009, a supposedly anonymous developer, Satoshi Nakamoto, created the first decentralised cryptocurrency, Bitcoin. Using the SHA-256 encrypted hash function as proof of work, Namecoin was created in April 2011 with the aim of creating a decentralised DNS that would make internet censorship more difficult. Shortly afterwards, in October 2011, Litecoin was launched. It uses scrypt, rather than SHA-256, as its hash function. Peercoin, another major cryptocurrency, uses a hybrid proof-of-work/proof-of-stake function.

On 6 August 2014, the UK announced that the Treasury had commissioned a study on cryptocurrencies and the role they could play in the UK economy. It will also report on whether regulation should be considered. Its final report was published in 2018, and in January 2021 it published a consultation on cryptoassets and cryptocurrencies.

In June 2021, El Salvador became the first country to recognise Bitcoin as legal tender when the Legislative Assembly voted 62-22 in favour of a bill to recognise cryptocurrencies as legal tender, introduced by President Naib Bakr.

In August 2021, Cuba followed suit and accepted Bitcoin as legal tender through Resolution 215, bypassing US sanctions.

In September 2021, the Chinese government, the largest cryptocurrency market, ended its crackdown on cryptocurrencies by making all cryptocurrency transactions illegal, having previously banned brokers and miners from operating in the country.

The official definition

According to Jan Lansky, a cryptocurrency is a system that fulfils the following six conditions

  1. It is a system that does not require a central authority and maintains its status through decentralised consensus.
  2. It is a system for registering cryptocurrency units and their ownership.
  3. The system decides whether new cryptocurrency units can be created or not. If new cryptocurrency units can be created, the system will determine the status of their creation and how to determine the ownership of these new units.
  4. The ownership of cryptocurrency units can only be proven by encryption.
  5. The system must approve transactions where the ownership of cryptocurrency units has changed. A transaction statement can only be issued by an entity that has confirmed the current ownership of the unit.
  6. If two different commands are entered simultaneously to change the ownership of the same cryptocurrency unit, the system will not execute one of them.


Tokens, cryptocurrencies and other types of digital assets that are not bitcoins are collectively referred to as alternative cryptocurrencies, often abbreviated as «altcoins» or «altcoins» or disparagingly as «sitcoins». Paul Vigna of the Wall Street Journal has also described altcoins as «an alternative version of Bitcoin» because they are a model protocol for altcoin creators. The term is generally used to refer to coins or tokens created after Bitcoin.

Altcoins are often fundamentally different from Bitcoin. For example, Litecoin tries to process a block every 2.5 minutes, instead of Bitcoin’s 10 minutes. This allows Litecoin to validate transactions faster than Bitcoin. Ethereum also has a smart contract feature that allows users to run decentralised applications on the blockchain. According to Bloomberg News, Ether will be the most widely used blockchain by 2020. According to the New York Times, it had the largest «following» of all altcoins in 2016.
The rapid rise of the altcoin market as a whole is often referred to as «altcoin season».


A stablecoin is an alternative currency designed to maintain stable purchasing power.


Decentralised cryptocurrencies are produced collectively by the entire cryptocurrency system at a rate that is determined and published at the time of the system’s creation. In a centralised banking and economic system, such as the US Federal Reserve, the money supply is controlled by the boards of companies or by the government.

In the case of decentralised cryptocurrencies, companies and governments cannot produce new units and do not offer the opportunity to hold the value of assets measured by other companies, banks or commercial entities. The technical system underlying decentralised cryptocurrencies was created by a group or individual called Satoshi Nakamoto.

As of May 2018, there are more than 1,800 specifications for cryptocurrencies. In a cryptocurrency system like Bitcoin, the security, integrity and balance of the ledger are maintained by a community of mutually untrusted parties called miners.

Satoshi Nakamoto

Miners use their own computers to verify transactions, time-stamp them and add them to the ledger according to a specific time-stamping scheme; in a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchain, transactions are verified by holders of a particular cryptocurrency and sometimes grouped into pools of capital. In a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchain, transactions are verified by holders of a particular cryptocurrency, sometimes in a pool of capital.

Most cryptocurrencies work by setting a limit on the total amount of a given currency in circulation, which gradually reduces the amount of that currency produced. Cryptocurrencies can be more difficult for law enforcement to seize than traditional money held in financial institutions or cash on hand.


The validity of each cryptocurrency is guaranteed by a blockchain. A blockchain is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are cryptographically linked together to ensure security. Each block usually contains a hash pointer as a reference to the previous block,[44] a timestamp and transaction data. Blockchains, by their very nature, are resistant to data manipulation.

It is «an open, distributed ledger that provides an efficient and verifiable permanent record of transactions between parties». To be used as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is usually managed by a peer-to-peer network that follows a protocol to verify new blocks. Once the data in a block has been written, it cannot be changed retroactively without changing all subsequent blocks, which requires a large part of the network to collaborate.

The blockchain is intrinsically secure and is an example of a distributed computing system with a high degree of Byzantine fault tolerance. In this way, blockchain provides a decentralised consensus.


In the cryptocurrency world, a node is a computer connected to a cryptocurrency network. Nodes maintain the corresponding cryptocurrency network by transferring transactions, validating and hosting copies of the blockchain. For the transfer of transactions, each computer in the network (node) has a copy of the blockchain of the cryptocurrency it holds. When a transaction occurs, the node that created it encrypts the details of the transaction and sends it to other nodes in the network. It sends it to other nodes in the node’s network so that they can know about that transaction (and all the others).

Nodes can be owned by volunteers, by nodes hosted by organisations or institutions responsible for the technical development of cryptocurrency blockchain networks, or by individuals who have been invited to host a node in order to be rewarded for being on the node network.

Time stamps

Cryptocurrencies use various timestamping mechanisms to «verify» transactions added to the blockchain without the help of a trusted third party.

The first time stamping scheme that was invented was the proof-of-work scheme. The most widely used proof-of-work schemes are based on SHA-256 and scripting.

Other hash algorithms used for proof of work are CryptoNight, Blake, SHA-3 and X11.

Proof-of-Share is a method of securing cryptocurrency networks and achieving decentralised consensus, which requires users to prove ownership of a certain amount of currency. This differs from proof-of-work systems, which use complex hashing algorithms to verify electronic transactions.

The system is highly coin-dependent and there is currently no standard form. Some cryptocurrencies use a combination of proof-of-work and proof-of-stake schemes.


ASIC granja mineria Iran

In a cryptocurrency network, mining is a proof-of-work transaction. As a result of this effort, successful miners receive a new cryptocurrency. The reward reduces the cost of the transaction and creates an additional incentive to increase the processing capacity of the network.

By using specialised machines such as FPGAs and ASICs running advanced hash algorithms such as SHA-256 and scrypt, the legitimacy of each transaction can be verified. By using specialised machines, such as FPGAs and ASICs, running advanced hash algorithms such as SHA-256 and scrypt, the speed of generating hashes to verify the legitimacy of each transaction is increased.

By using specialised machines such as FPGAs and ASICs running advanced hash algorithms such as SHA-256 and scrypt, the legitimacy of each transaction can be verified. By using specialised machines, such as FPGAs and ASICs, running advanced hash algorithms such as SHA-256 and scrypt, the speed of generating hashes to verify the legitimacy of each transaction is increased.

As more and more people enter the world of virtual currencies, generating verified hashes is becoming increasingly difficult, forcing miners to make large investments in multiple high-performance ASICs.

As a result, the value of the coin obtained from a hash search is often not worth the cost of installing the machine, the cooling system to reduce the heat generated and the electricity to run it. Areas with low electricity costs, cooler climates and clear, favourable regulations are popular for mining; in July 2019, electricity consumption for Bitcoin mining is estimated at around 7 gigawatts, which is equivalent to 0.2% of global consumption, or the equivalent of Switzerland.

Some miners pool their resources to share computing power across the network, and rewards are distributed equally based on the amount of work contributed to the probability of finding a block. The «share» is allocated to members of the mining pool who have provided a valid partial proof of work.

Since February 2018, the Chinese government has suspended virtual currency trading, banned the issuance of primary coins and stopped mining. Since then, many Chinese miners have relocated to Canada and Texas.

One company has set up a mining data centre in a Canadian oil and gas field due to lower natural gas prices; in June 2018, Hydro-Quebec provided the provincial government with 500 MW of data for mining cryptocurrency companies.

In February 2018, Fortune magazine reported According to the report, Iceland has become a haven for cryptocurrency miners, thanks in part to cheap electricity.

In March 2018, the city of Plattsburgh in upstate New York declared an 18-month moratorium on cryptocurrency mining in order to protect the city’s natural resources and its «character and direction».
GPU price hike

GPU price increases

The rise of cryptocurrency mining has led to a surge in demand for graphics cards (GPUs) in 2017 [(GPUs are ideal for hash generation because of their high processing power)]: Nvidia GTX 1060 and GTX 1070, AMD RX 570 and RX 580 graphics cards. Products popular with cryptocurrency miners, such as graphics cards, have doubled or tripled in price or have been discontinued: the GTX 1070 Ti, which launched at $450, now sells for $1,100.

Another popular card, the GTX 1060 with 6GB of memory, which launched with an RRP of $250, sold for almost $500. AMD’s RX 570 and RX 580 cards have been out of stock for almost a year. When a new GPU is released, Miner usually buys out its entire inventory.

Nvidia asks its suppliers to do their best to sell GPUs to gamers, not miners,» says Boris Boeles, head of public relations at Nvidia in Germany. For Nvidia, the gamer comes first.


A cryptocurrency wallet stores public and private «keys» (addresses) and seeds for receiving and spending cryptocurrencies. A private key allows you to actually use the corresponding cryptocurrency and register it in the ledger. The public key allows other people to send currency to the wallet.

There are different ways to store keys and seeds in a wallet: paper wallets, which store public keys, private keys and traditional seeds on paper; hardware wallets, which are special devices for securely storing wallet information; computers, which store wallet information in software; or a digital wallet, which is a computer that stores wallet information in software, or a wallet hosted on an exchange that stores wallets. Or, store the wallet information in plain text or other format in a digital wallet.


Bitcoin is pseudonymous, not anonymous, because the cryptocurrency in the wallet is linked to one or more specific keys (or «addresses»), not to a person. Therefore, it is not possible to identify the owner of the Bitcoins, but all transactions are published on the blockchain. However, cryptocurrency exchanges are often legally obliged to collect users’ personal data.

To provide additional anonymity and exchangeability, add-ons such as Monero, Zerocoin, Zerocash and CryptoNote have been proposed.


Cryptocurrencies are mainly used outside existing banking and government institutions and are exchanged via the internet.

Blockchain rewards

Proof-of-work cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, offer incentives to miners in the form of rewards on the blockchain. While it is widely believed that rewards paid to miners, such as per-block rewards and transaction fees, do not affect the security of the blockchain, this research suggests that in some cases this is not the case.

Rewards paid to miners increase the supply of cryptocurrencies. By making transaction verification expensive, network integrity can be maintained as long as bona fide nodes control most of the processing power. Verification algorithms require a lot of processing power, and therefore a lot of power, to make verification expensive enough to accurately validate a public blockchain.

Miners must consider not only the cost of accessing the expensive hardware needed to solve the hashing problem, but also the high cost of electricity to find a solution. It is generally accepted that the benefits of blockchain outweigh the electricity and equipment costs, but this is not always the case.

The current value, not the long-term value of the cryptocurrency, underpins a reward system designed to motivate miners to engage in expensive mining. Some sources claim that Bitcoin’s current design is highly inefficient, amounting to a 1.4% welfare reduction compared to an efficient monetary system. The main reason for this inefficiency is the huge mining costs, which are estimated at $360 million per year.

This means that users do not choose Bitcoin as a means of payment, but accept a monetary system with an inflation rate of 230%. However, the efficiency of the Bitcoin system can be greatly improved by optimising the speed of coin creation and minimising transaction fees. Another possible improvement would be to change the consensus protocol to eliminate inefficient mining activities altogether.

Transaction costs

Transaction fees for cryptocurrencies depend largely on the immediate availability of network capacity and the currency holder’s need for fast transactions. Currency holders can choose a specific transaction fee, and network entities will process transactions in order from the highest to the lowest fee offered.

Cryptocurrency exchanges can simplify the process for currency holders by providing alternative priorities to determine which fees are most likely to process transactions within the required timeframe.

For Ethereum, transaction fees depend on computational intensity, bandwidth usage and storage requirements, while Bitcoin transaction fees depend on the size of the transaction and whether SegWit is used. In September 2018, the median transaction fee for Ethereum was $0.017, while Bitcoin was $0.55.

Some cryptocurrencies do not have transaction fees and instead use client-side proof-of-work to prioritise transactions and avoid spam.


Cryptocurrency exchanges allow customers to exchange cryptocurrencies for other assets, such as traditional fiat currency, or to trade between different digital currencies.

Atomic exchange

An atomic exchange is a mechanism that allows one cryptocurrency to be exchanged directly for another cryptocurrency without going through a trusted third party such as an exchange.


On 20 February 2014, Jordan Kelly, founder of Robocoin, opened the first Bitcoin ATM in the United States. The kiosk, located in Austin, Texas, has a scanner that reads government-issued identity documents such as a driver’s licence or passport, similar to bank ATMs, to verify the user’s identity.

Initial token offerings

Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) are a controversial way to raise funds for cryptocurrency start-ups ICOs are sometimes used by start-ups to circumvent regulations. However, securities regulators in many countries, including the United States and Canada, have declared that if a coin or token is an «investment contract».

For example, an investment with a reasonable expectation of return based on a howey test and that relies heavily on the entrepreneurial or management efforts of others. is a security and subject to securities regulation. In an ICO campaign, a portion of cryptocurrency (usually in the form of a token) is sold to the initial backers of the project in exchange for fiat currency or another cryptocurrency (usually bitcoin or ether).

According to PwC, four of the top 10 proposed token IPOs are based in Switzerland and are typically registered as not-for-profit funds. Swiss regulator FINMA says it takes a «balanced approach» to ICO projects, «allowing legitimate innovators to navigate the regulatory environment and launch their projects in accordance with national laws in order to protect investors and the health of the financial system».

In response to numerous industry requests In response to numerous industry requests, the ICO Legislative Working Group began issuing legal guidance in 2018 with the aim of removing uncertainty from cryptocurrency offerings and creating sustainable business practices.


The «market value» of a coin is calculated by multiplying its price by the number of coins in circulation. The total market value of cryptocurrencies has historically been dominated by Bitcoin, which accounts for more than 50% of the total market value, while the market value of alternative currencies has fluctuated up and down relative to Bitcoin.

Bitcoin’s value is largely driven by speculation, including technical constraints called blockchain rewards, which are encoded in the technology of the Bitcoin architecture itself. The market capitalisation of cryptocurrencies tends to «halve» as the blockchain rewards received from bitcoin are halved due to technical licensing restrictions embedded in bitcoin, limiting the supply of bitcoin.

As the date of the halving approaches (there have been two in history), the cryptocurrency’s market capitalisation will rise and tend to fall.

In mid-June 2021, cryptocurrencies began to be offered as a volatile asset class for portfolio diversification by some 401(k) asset managers in the United States.

Tighter regulation in 2021

The popularity of cryptocurrencies and their adoption by financial institutions has led some governments to consider the need for regulation to protect users.

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) has defined cryptocurrency-related services as «virtual asset service providers» (VASPs) and recommended that they be regulated using the same anti-money laundering (AML) and know-your-customer (KYC) requirements as financial institutions.

In May 2020, the Joint Working Group on Reporting Standards between VASPs published IVMS 101, a common shared language for transferring necessary originator and beneficiary information between VASPs. In developing the data model, the Group sought input from the FATF and financial regulators.

In June 2020, the FATF updated its guidelines to include a «pass-through rule» for cryptocurrencies. This is a measure that requires VCPPS to receive, store and exchange information on the issuer and beneficiary of virtual asset transfers. Subsequent standardised protocol specifications have recommended the use of JSON for data transfer between VCPPS and identity services.

As of December 2020, the IVMS 101 data model has not been finally approved by the three global standardisation bodies that created it.

In September 2020, the European Commission published its Digital Finance Strategy. This included a proposal for a Regulation on the market for crypto-assets (MiCA), which aims to create a comprehensive regulatory framework for digital assets in the EU.

On 10 June 2021, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed that banks holding cryptocurrency assets should set aside capital to cover potential losses. For example, if a bank holds $2 billion in Bitcoin, it should set aside enough capital to cover the entire $2 billion. This is a more extreme rule than banks usually apply to other assets. But it is a recommendation, not a regulation.

United States

On 8 July 2021, Senator Elizabeth Warren, a member of the Senate Banking Committee, wrote to the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requesting answers on the regulation of cryptocurrencies by 28 July 2021. Due to the growing use of cryptocurrency exchanges and the dangers they pose to consumers. .


On 18 May 2021, China banned financial institutions and payment companies from providing services related to cryptocurrency transactions. As a result, the prices of the main proof-of-work cryptocurrencies have plummeted.

For example, Bitcoin is down 31%, Ether is down 44%, Binance Coin is down 32% and Dogecoin is down 30%. Regulators in areas where mining is active have also noted that electricity generated from highly polluting resources such as coal is being used to generate Bitcoin and Ethereum.

The crackdown on cryptocurrencies was completed in September 2021, when the Chinese government outlawed all forms of cryptocurrency trading.

United Kingdom

In the UK, from 10 January 2021, all cryptocurrency companies, including exchanges, advisors and specialists, must register with the Financial Conduct Authority if they wish to be present in the UK market, sell products or provide services.

In addition, on 27 June 2021, the Financial Conduct Authority required Binance, the world’s largest cryptocurrency exchange, to cease all regulated activities in the UK. Some commentators believe this is an indication that tighter regulation of the UK cryptocurrency market is imminent.

South Africa

South Africa is reportedly experiencing a series of cryptocurrency scams and has developed a regulatory timeline to establish a regulatory framework. The biggest scam occurred in April 2021, when two founders of Africrypt, an African cryptocurrency exchange, Raees Cajee and Ameer Cajee, disappeared with $3.8 billion in bitcoins. Mirror Trading International also disappeared in January 2021 with $170 million in cryptocurrencies.

South Korea

In March 2021, a new law was introduced in South Korea to strengthen oversight of digital assets. This law requires all custodians, providers and exchanges of digital assets to register with the Korean Financial Intelligence Unit in order to operate in the country.

To register with the unit, all exchanges must have a certified information security management system, all clients must have a real name bank account. The CEO and directors of the exchange must not be involved in any criminal activity, and the exchange must have sufficient deposit insurance to cover losses from hacker attacks.


The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, Turkey’s central bank, has banned the use of cryptocurrencies and cryptocurrencies for purchases from 30 April 2021 on the grounds that there are significant operational risks in using cryptocurrencies for these payments.

El Salvador

El Salvador announced on 9 June 2021 that it will be the first country to accept Bitcoin as legal tender.


In August 2021, Cuba will become the second country to accept the cryptocurrency as legal tender.


The legal status of cryptocurrencies varies widely from country to country and remains uncertain or fluid in many countries. At least one study suggests that the widespread generalisation that Bitcoin is used for illicit financing is greatly exaggerated and that blockchain analysis is an effective tool for crime fighting and intelligence gathering. While some countries explicitly allow its use and trade, others prohibit or restrict its use.

According to the Library of Congress, eight countries have «outright bans» on cryptocurrency trading or use: Algeria, Bolivia, Egypt, Iraq, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates. The other 15 countries with «implicit bans» are Bahrain, Bangladesh, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Lesotho, Lithuania, Macau, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan and Taiwan.

In the United States and Canada, state securities regulators, coordinated through the North American Securities Administrators Association, are investigating «Bitcoin fraud» and ICOs in 40 jurisdictions.

Different government agencies, departments and courts classify bitcoin differently. China’s central bank banned Chinese financial institutions from trading bitcoin in early 2014.

In Russia, holding cryptocurrencies is legal, but residents can only use Russian roubles to buy goods from other residents, while non-residents can use foreign currency. The same regulations and prohibitions that apply to Bitcoin may also apply to similar cryptocurrency systems.

In August 2018, the Bank of Thailand announced plans to create its own cryptocurrency, the CBDC (Central Bank Digital Currency).

Advertising ban

Cryptocurrency advertising has been temporarily banned on social media platforms Facebook, Google, Twitter, Bing, Snapchat, LinkedIn and MailChimp. Chinese internet platforms Baidu, Tencent and Weibo have also banned Bitcoin advertising. Similar bans also exist on the Japanese platform LINE and the Russian platform Yandex.

Taxation in the United States

On 25 March 2014, the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS) ruled that Bitcoin is considered property for tax purposes. As a result, Bitcoin is subject to capital gains tax; in July 2019, the IRS sent a letter to cryptocurrency owners instructing them to amend their tax returns and pay the tax.

Legal challenges posed by an unregulated global economy

While the popularity and demand for online currencies has grown since the introduction of Bitcoin in 2009, there is also growing concern that the role of an unregulated global economy offered by cryptocurrencies could pose a threat to society. There is growing concern that altcoins could become a tool for anonymous online criminals.

Cryptocurrency networks have been criticised for demonstrating a lack of regulation and allowing criminals to pursue tax evasion and money laundering. However, money laundering issues also arise in traditional bank transfers, such as interbank transfers, where the account holder must at least be identified.

Transactions and exchanges made with these altcoins do not rely on the formal banking system, which facilitates tax evasion by individuals. Accounting for transactions made with existing cryptocurrencies can be very complex, as the reporting of taxable income is based on what the recipient declares to the tax authorities. Moreover, these exchanges are complex and difficult to trace.

The system of anonymity offered by most cryptocurrencies can also be used as an easier means of money laundering. Instead of using a complex network of financial institutions and offshore bank accounts to launder money, alternative currencies can be used to launder transactions anonymously.

Loss, theft and fraud

In February 2014, Mt.Gox, the world’s largest Bitcoin exchange, filed for bankruptcy. According to the company, it lost approximately $473 million in customer bitcoins. Allegedly, Mt.Gox attributes the theft to hackers who took advantage of the network’s flawed trading features. The price of a bitcoin has fallen from a high of $1,160 in December to less than $400 in February.

Two members of the Silk Road Task Force, the federal interagency agency investigating Silk Road in the United States, diverted bitcoins for themselves during the investigation, attempting to extort money from Silk Road founder Ross Ulbricht («Dread Pirate Roberts»).

DEA agent Carl Merkley IV, who attempted to extort money from Silk Road founder Ross Ulbricht («Dread Pirate Roberts»), pleaded guilty to money laundering, obstruction of justice and extortion by abuse of authority and was sentenced to 6.5 years in federal prison.

Sean Bridges of the US Secret Service was sentenced to nearly eight years in federal prison after pleading guilty to transferring $800,000 in Bitcoin to a personal account during an investigation and pleading guilty separately to money laundering in connection with another cryptocurrency theft case.

Homero Josh Garza, who founded cryptocurrency startups GAW Miners and ZenMiner in 2014, pleaded guilty to being part of a pyramid scheme in a plea deal and pleaded guilty to digital currency fraud in 2015.

The SEC brought a separate civil action against Garza, who was ultimately ordered to pay $9.1 million plus $700,000 in interest; the SEC’s complaint alleges that Garza, through his companies, «sold investment contracts on behalf of the profits interests he represented in the mining industry» and is alleged to have committed fraud.

On 21 November 2017, cryptocurrency exchange Tether announced that it had been hacked and lost 31 million USDT from its main wallet. The company «marked» the stolen coin in the hope that it would be «locked» in the hacker’s wallet (thus rendering the coin useless). In response to the attack, Tether said it was creating a new main wallet to ensure that the stolen coins were not used.

In May 2018, Bitcoin Gold (and two other cryptocurrencies) were successfully subjected to a 51% hashtag by unknown actors, costing the exchange approximately USD 18 million in losses. In June 2018, South Korean exchange Coinrail was hacked, resulting in the loss of $37 million in altcoins. The horror surrounding this hack led to a $42 billion sell-off in the cryptocurrency market; on 9 July 2018, $23.5 million in cryptocurrencies were stolen from the Bancor exchange.

The Autorité des marchés financiers (AMF), the French regulator, has listed 15 websites of companies promoting cryptocurrency investment that are not authorised in France.

According to a report published by the EU in 2020, users lost hundreds of millions of dollars in cryptoassets due to security breaches in exchanges and vaults. between 2011 and 2019, between four and 12 breaches were detected each year. in 2019, more than $1 billion in thefts were reported .

Stolen assets «are often placed on illicit markets and used to finance other criminal activities».

Dark web markets

Cryptocurrencies are popular for their properties as a safe haven and means of payment during banking crises, and were also used in internet black markets, such as the controversial Silk Road. The original Silk Road was shut down in October 2013, but since then two versions have emerged. In the year since the closure of the original Silk Road, the number of major black markets has increased from 4 to 12 and the number of drug shipments has risen from 18,000 to 32,000.

There is a legitimacy problem in the dark web market. Cryptocurrencies used in the dark web market do not have a clear legal classification in most parts of the world. In the United States, Bitcoin is referred to as a «virtual asset». This ambiguous classification puts pressure on law enforcement around the world to keep up with the ever-changing landscape of drug trafficking on the dark web.


Speculation, fraud and adoption

Cryptocurrencies have been compared to economic bubbles such as ponzi schemes, pyramid schemes and the housing market bubble; Howard Marks of Oak Capital Management said in 2017 that digital currencies are «just an unproven fad (and possibly a pyramid scheme) based on people’s willingness to find value in something that has little value except that people are willing to pay for it».

It is nothing more than an unproven fad (and possibly a pyramid scheme) based on people’s willingness to pay for something that has little value, other than that people are willing to pay for it», comparing it to the Tulip Mania (1637), the South Sea Bubble (1720) and the Dotcom Bubble (1999).

The New Yorker explains the crux of this debate in an article entitled «The Debate Over Whether Bitcoin, Etherium and Blockchain Will Change the World», based on interviews with blockchain founders.

Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that are governed by sophisticated cryptography, but many governments are wary of them because of a lack of central control and concerns about their impact on financial security. Regulators in some countries have issued warnings about cryptocurrencies, and some are taking steps to discourage users.

However, research by the UK’s financial regulator 2021 suggests that these warnings are either ignored or disregarded. Less than one in ten people considering buying cryptocurrencies are aware of the consumer warnings on the FCA’s website, and 12% of cryptocurrency users are unaware that their property is not legally protected.

In addition, many banks do not offer cryptocurrency services and may refuse to provide services to businesses that trade in virtual currencies. The widespread use of (cryptocurrencies) could also make it difficult for statistical agencies to collect data on economic activity that governments use to manage the economy,» said Gareth Murphy, a senior central bank official.

He warned that virtual currencies pose new challenges for central banks in controlling important monetary and exchange rate policy functions. Traditional financial products have good consumer protection, but no intermediary can limit consumer losses if Bitcoin is lost or stolen.

One element that cryptocurrencies lack compared to credit cards and other financial products is consumer protection against fraudulent activities, such as chargebacks.

The cryptocurrency community describes pre-mining, hidden triggers, ICOs or extreme rewards for altcoin founders as fraudulent practices. It is also an integral part of cryptocurrency design. Pre-mining is when the founder of a cryptocurrency generates the coin before it is made public.

Nobel laureate Paul Krugman has repeatedly compared it to tulip mania, saying it is a bubble that will not last. US business tycoon Warren Buffett believes cryptocurrencies will end badly; in October 2017, BlackRock CEO Lawrence D. Fink called bitcoin a «money laundering indicator».


Morgan Stanley, the first major Wall Street bank to embrace cryptocurrencies, announced on 17 March 2021 that it will give access to Bitcoin to its high net worth clients through three funds that will allow investors with an aggressive risk tolerance to hold Bitcoin. February 2021 On 11 February 2021, Bank of New York Mellon announced that it would begin offering cryptocurrency services to its customers.

On 20 April 2021, Venmo added support to its platform to allow customers to buy, hold and sell cryptocurrencies.

Economic freedom

Cryptocurrencies represent a breakthrough in economic growth and personal freedom for individuals in developing countries and countries under economic sanctions.

The cryptocurrency market is known to be less regulated and therefore more accessible than traditional banking, allowing citizens to bypass governments and regulations to benefit from cryptocurrencies and live by using, trading and exchanging them for traditional goods.

In countries with high inflation and the inability to use fiat currencies to survive, many are turning to cryptocurrencies to work through online job boards, bypassing strict regulations and gaining financial freedom.

Environmental impact

In 2017, Bitcoin mining would have consumed 948 megawatts, which is equivalent to the size of the countries of Angola (ranked 102nd in the world) and Panama (ranked 103rd). Proof-based blockchains such as Bitcoin, Ether, Litecoin and Monero are estimated to have added between 3 and 15 million tonnes of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 1 January 2016 and 30 June 2017.

Bitcoin annual estimate as of November 2018 It consumed 45.8 terawatt hours of energy and generated between 22.0 and 22.9 megatonnes of CO2, which is comparable to countries such as Jordan and Sri Lanka.

Critics also point to the serious problem of e-waste in the disposal of the platforms.
Bitcoin is the least energy-efficient cryptocurrency, consuming 707.6 kilowatt hours of electricity per transaction. By contrast, Ether, the world’s second most energy-efficient cryptocurrency, consumes 62.56 kWh of electricity per transaction.

Both cryptocurrencies consume a significant amount of energy per transaction compared to some of their competitors with lower market values.

Dogecoin, for example, consumes a relatively low amount of energy, consuming 0.12 kWh of electricity per transaction. Ripple ($XRP) is the world’s most energy-efficient cryptocurrency, consuming 0.0079 kWh of electricity per transaction. cardano consumes only 0.5479 kWh of electricity per transaction.

Technical limitations

There are also purely technical factors to consider. For example, technological advances in cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin have made the initial cost of dedicated hardware and software for miners more expensive. Cryptocurrency transactions are often irreversible after a few blocks have been verified.

In addition, locally stored and locked cryptocurrency keys may be unrecoverable due to malware, data loss or damage to physical media. This would render the cryptocurrency useless and remove it from the market.

Academic research

The peer-reviewed academic journal Ledger (ISSN 2379-5980) was published in September 2015. It is dedicated to the study of cryptocurrencies and related technologies and is published by the University of Pittsburgh.
The journal asks readers to digitally sign a hash of the submitted article, which is then entered into the Bitcoin blockchain. We also ask that you include your personal Bitcoin address on the first page of the article.

Aid agencies

Several aid agencies, such as the American Red Cross, UNICEF and the United Nations World Food Programme, have begun accepting cryptocurrency donations.

Cryptocurrencies have the potential to facilitate the tracking of donations and allow donors to control how their money is spent (financial transparency).

UNICEF Chief Innovation Advisor Christopher Fabian says UNICEF will follow existing donation protocols. This means that anyone donating online will have to undergo rigorous verification before they can deposit money into UNICEF’s account.